Sunday, May 24, 2020
In the case of the American retailing company, SuperValu, management information systems (MIS) plays an essential role in a company s organizational structure. By implementing MIS software tools such as Yammer, which was brought upon by SuperValu CEO Craig Herkert, the firm is looking into growing further in a more efficient and effective manner to not only please shareholders but also to allow the firm to act more unilaterally. In order to fully understand and improve the MIS environment for SuperValu, a SWOT analysis must be conducted. By analyzing the firm s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats, a vivid snapshot can be taken of what has been done in order to improve the inefficiencies of the firm and to continue to mold SuperValu into a legitimate competitor alongside conglomerates such as WalMart and Target. By performing this SWOT analysis of the firm, an evaluation and level of correlation of SuperValuÃ¢â¬â¢s market share and profits will be conducted to see which direction the firm should follow not only in terms of information systems but as a company. Internal Analysis The following paragraph will discuss and analyse the first part of the SWOT analysis, which is the strengths of the management information systems in which Supervalu operates. When looking at SuperValuÃ¢â¬â¢s information technology programs such as Yammer, SuperValu displays several strengths. SuperValu took a significant first step in the right direction by hiring an innovative CEO, Craig
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
When writing report card comments, focus on the students existing strengths and look for ways to motivate the student to improve in areas of weakness by providing advice. The following phrases and statements can help you tailor your comments for each specific student. Writing report card comments designed to instill ambition within students can empower them to make positive changes. Try to provide specific examples, tailored to the subject, whenever you can to make your report card comments more personal. Key Takeaways: Report Card Comments Stress positive attributesUse words such as requires, struggles, or seldom to show when a child needs extra helpIntroduce areas in need of work in a way that wont make parents feel like youre criticizing the student unnecessarily, for example, list negative comments under a comments section titled goals to work on Supportive and detailed comments can provide parents with ways to partner with you to make students feel empowered to do better Attitude and Personality Phrases should present information n a straightforward manner about the students classroom temperament, giving suggestions for improvements when possible: Has a good attitude toward school.Is an enthusiastic learner who seems to enjoy school.Strives to reach his full potential.Shows initiative and thinks things through for herself.Exhibits a positive outlook and attitude in the classroom.Is a sweet and cooperative child.Is self-confident and has excellent manners.Is honest and trustworthy in dealings with others.Is developing a better attitude toward schoolwork this year.Needs to improve classroom attitude by learning to better collaborate with classmates.Needs to work on sharing more with others and being a better friend. Comments should be both celebratory and constructive when appropriate. Give examples of what works well for students, recognize areas in which they truly excel, and provide information not only on what needs to be improved but how the student can improve in those areas. Continues to make nice progress this year concerning...As we discussed in our last parent-teacher conference, [your childs] attitude toward the basic skills is...I will continue to need your help and support in order for [your child] to overcome his attitude and social difficulties. He will find school a much more pleasant place if he/she can make a positive effort in this area.[Your childs] attitude has continued to improve. Thank you for your support and cooperation.[Your child] has shown a good attitude about trying to improve in [this subject]. I am hoping this recent interest and improvement will continue throughout the school year. Participation and Behavior Spend time reflecting not just on grades but also the students actions in class. Participation is often a significant portion of the grading model, and your comments should address the level of a students participation, such as remains an active learner throughout the school day and is enthusiastic about participating. Comments should also address a students behavior, both positive and negative. Takes an active role in discussions.Needs to actively participate in classroom discussion.Listens attentively to the responses of others.Is courteous and shows good manners in the classroom.Consistently cooperates with the teacher and other students.Is kind and helpful to everyone in the classroom.Caring, kind, and eager to please.Needs to listen to directions.Needs to work on staying focused and on task.Needs to work on not distracting others during class. Time Management and Work Habits Students who are always well-prepared for class and have strong organization study habits can benefit from being reminded that this simple, yet important, skill is recognized and appreciated. Similarly, students who arent prepared, rush their work, or need to stay on task more need to know that this behavior is noticed and is not condoned. Your comments can provide clear recognition of skills and give parents insight into areas in which students need to improve. Is well-prepared for class each day.Rushes through work or does not work at an appropriate pace.Never completes assignments in the allotted time.Comprehends well, but needs to work more quickly.Puts her best effort into homework assignments.Stays on task with little supervision.Is a self-motivated student.Sacrifices accuracy for unnecessary speed in his written work.Completes assignments in the time allotted.Avoids careless errors through attention to detail.Uses class time wisely.Needs to keep her cubby and desk better organized. General Learning and Social Skills How a student works with peers and makes friends can be reflective of their personalities, and what they need in order to succeed in life. Your comments should reflect the students abilities to work in groups, individually, and if they are good citizens. Pay attention to how students interact with each other not just in the classroom, but also on the field and at recess, where they often dont feel like the teachers are directly supervising. Needs to be accepting and willing to make new friends.Responds well to positive praise and clear expectations.Is learning to be careful, cooperative, and fair.Works well in groups, planning and carrying out activities.Works democratically with peers.Makes little effort when not under direct supervision.Needs a lot of repetition and practice in order to retain the information given.Shows self-confidence in...Uses a variety of learning strategies to help with...Applies knowledge of...Needs more opportunities to ...Writes clearly and with purpose.Seeks responsibilities and follows through. Helpful Words Here are some helpful words to include in your report card comment section: aggressive, ambitious, anxious, confident, cooperative, dependable, determined, developing, energetic, emerging, friendly, generous, happy, helpful, imaginative, improving, neat, observant, pleasant, polite, prompt, quiet, receptive, reliant, resourceful. Stress the positive attributes and list goals to work on to notify the parents about the negatives. Use words such as requires, struggles, or seldom to show when a child needs extra help. Introduce areas in need of work in a way that wont make parents feel like youre criticizing the student unnecessarily. Addressing Areas in Need of Improvement You can tweak any of the phrases above to indicate an area of improvement by adding the word Needs to. For a more positive spin on a negative comment, list it under a comments section titled goals to work on. For example, for a student who rushes through the work, you might say something like, Needs to focus on trying to do his best work without rushing and having to be the first one finished. Supportive and detailed comments can provide parents with ways to partner with you to make students feel empowered to do better.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(129) " specialized group for undertaking transfer pricing audits and have begun using confidential comparable data for audit purposes\." International Research Journal of Finance and Economics ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 40 (2010) Ã © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010 http://www. eurojournals. We will write a custom essay sample on Analyzing Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations: a Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now com/finance. htm Analyzing Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations: A Case Study Monica Singhania Associate Professor, Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), University of Delhi, India E-mail: monica@fms. du Abstract The Indian Transfer Pricing regulations have been enacted with a view to provide a statutory framework which can lead to computation of reasonable, fair and equitable profit and tax in India so that the profits chargeable to tax in India do not get diverted elsewhere by altering the prices charged and paid in intra-group transactions leading to erosion of Indian tax revenue. Any income arising from an international transaction shall be computed having regard to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price (ALP). The ALP shall be determined by any of the prescribed methods, being the most appropriate method. The present paper illustrates the practical aspects of the law regarding transfer pricing as it exists presently in India with the help of a case study. The relevant rules envisage determination of ALP by applying margins of each comparable company to the appropriate base of the enterprise. The regulations further provide that, where more than one price is determined by the most appropriate method, the ALP shall be taken to be the arithmetical mean of such prices. An alternative practical approach to arrive at such ALP is to compute the arithmetic mean of margins of comparable companies and apply the same to the appropriate base of the tested party to determine the ALP. The analysis shows that the mean GP/Sales of comparable companies is 33. 71% while that of the PQR India (i. e. , the tested party) is 44. 20% during the year ended March 31, 2009 indicating that the prices of international transaction of PQR India conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. Further, under Category B, costs recharged by PQR Group to PQR India are included. All these costs represent actual amounts paid by PQR Group to independent third parties and are recovered from PQR India, on a cost-to-cost basis. Applying the comparable uncontrolled price method, these recharges conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. However, there are some practical problems arising out of the applications of transfer pricing egulations, which need to be addressed by the tax administrators as early as possible. These issues include absence of advance pricing agreements (APA) mechanism in India, data limitations, extremely wide definition of associated enterprises in India, stringent penalties, difficulties encountered while conducting economic analysis/benchmarking and many more. Keywords: Transfer Pricing, Tax laws, International transactions, Arms length price 1. Introduction The Indian Transfer Pricing regulations have been enacted with a view to provide a regulatory framework which is capable of computing reasonable, fair and equitable profit and tax in India so that the profits chargeable to tax in India do not get diverted elsewhere by altering the prices charged and 204 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) paid in intra-group transactions leading to erosion of Indian tax revenue. Any income arising from an international transaction shall be computed having regard to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price (ALP). The regulations on transfer pricing in India were clearly inevitable and long overdue. The regulations in their present form are a product of the findings of the Expert Group set up by the Government of India in November 1999 to study global transfer pricing practices and examine the need for such legislation in India. The Indian transfer pricing regulations applicable with effect from April 1, 2001 are largely based on the OECD guidelines. By manipulating a few book entries in the accounts books, multinational corporations are able to transfer huge profits with practically no actual change in the business process. For instance, X Ltd. manufactures ipods for $ 500 in China, but its US based subsidiary buys it for $ 599, and then sells it for $ 600. By doing this, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s taxable profit in the US is substantially decreased. At a 30 percent tax rate, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s tax liability in the US is only 30 cents (i. e. , 30% of $ 1) as compared to $30 (i. . , 30% of $ 100 which should have been the case). The large scale tax avoidance practices used by multinational corporations came into public notice when the drug giant MNE, GlaxoSmithKline, agreed to pay the US government $3. 4 billion to settle a long-running transfer pricing dispute over its tax dealings between the UK parent company and its American subsidiary. This was the largest settlement of a tax dispute in the US. Multinational corporations derive several benefits from transfer pricing. Since each country has different tax rates, they can increase their profits with the help of transfer pricing. By lowering prices in countries where tax rates are high and raising them in countries with a lower tax rate, such organizations can reduce their overall tax burden, thereby boosting their overall profits. Indeed one often finds that corporations located in high tax countries in fact pay very little corporate taxes. Transfer pricing features highly on the agenda of Indian tax authorities. The transfer pricing assessments relating to the first two years since the introduction of the Transfer Pricing regulations have seen incremental tax collections arising from transfer pricing adjustments in excess of US$ 800 million. The first round of transfer pricing audits in India of roughly 800 taxpayers resulted in 25% facing adjustments. The cumulative value of those adjustments aggregated US$ 300 million. In the following year, according to estimates, tax demands in excess of US$ 500 million were imposed as a result of upward adjustments. In this connection, the Indian tax authorities had initially set a very conservative threshold for audit INR 50 million (around USD 1 million) for the first four years. This threshold has been enhanced thrice with effect from the financial year 2005-06. The Indian tax authorities have also set up a specialized group for undertaking transfer pricing audits and have begun using confidential comparable data for audit purposes. You read "Analyzing Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations: a Case Study" in category "Free Case study samples" Scrutiny of overall profitability as well as transactional level pricing during the course of transfer pricing audits is also frequently done. 2. Theoretical Framework The role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in world trade has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. This reflects the increased integration of national economies and technological progress. Intercompany transactions across borders are growing rapidly and are becoming much more complex. Compliance with the different requirements of multiple overlapping tax jurisdictions is a complicated and time-consuming task. At the same time, tax authorities from each jurisdiction impose stricter penalties, new documentation requirements, increased information exchange and increased audit or inspection activity. With a view to provide a detailed statutory framework which can lead to computation of reasonable, fair and equitable profits and tax in India, in the case of such multinational enterprises, the Finance Act, 2001 substituted the then existing section 92 with sections 92A to 92F in the Income-tax Act, 1961, relating to computation of income from an international transaction having regard to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price, meaning of associated enterprise, meaning of information and documents by persons entering into international transactions and definitions of certain expressions occurring in the said section (see Appendix I for summary of Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations). The essential International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) 205 documentation which needs to be maintained for complying with these provisions as also the penalties for default in compliance are given in Appendix I. As per the Indian Regulations, the comparable data to be used in analyzing the comparability of an uncontrolled transaction with an international transaction should be the data relating to the financial year in which the international transaction has been entered into. However, data relating to a period not being more than two years prior to such financial year may also be considered if such data reveals facts, which could have an influence on the determination of the transfer price in relation to the transactions being compared. The ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s length principle (ALP) aims at determining whether the parties to a transaction are independent and are on an equal footing. The OECD framework as per Article 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention ensures that the transfer prices between companies of multinational enterprises are established on a market value basis, avoiding profits being systematically deviated to lowest tax countries. It provides the legal framework for governments to have their fair share of taxes, and for enterprises to avoid double taxation on their profits. The primary onus of proving the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length character of a transaction lies with the taxpayer. If during assessment proceedings, the tax authorities, on the basis of material or information or documents in their possession, are of the opinion that the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price was not applied, or adequate and correct documents/ information/ data were not maintained/ produced, the total income may be recomputed accordingly after giving the taxpayer an opportunity of being heard. 3. Literature Review There are numerous studies relating to transfer pricing in transactions taking place in developed countries1. This is primarily due to, the detailed statistical information relating to intra-firm trade made available in most of the developed countries, stringent laws requiring greater transparency, etc. In comparison, the availability of intra-firm trade data in developing countries is highly inadequate2. In addition, there is no systematic attempt in developing countries, to collect and analyze relevant data in one information repository database leading to multiple uses of such or ganized information. This is the case even though such information may in many cases exist with different government organizations, legal and administrative authorities and private business organizations engaged in creation of such databases for commercial reasons. This disjointed effort to data collection leads to multiple problems in undertaking quality research studies. It also highlights complete lack of coordination between policies, procedures and their practical application. Also the lack of any government sponsored studies, like those in Colombo, Greece and Sri Lanka, may be the reason why not many transfer pricing studies are undertaken in such countries. In United Kingdom, the transfer pricing rules were formulated as early as in 1915 [(Payan and Wilkie (19933)]. However, there was little pressure on such rules until mid 1960s when the revival of international trade and investment following World War II began. As far as United States is concerned, even before the non-traditional methods of transfer pricing were added to section 482, Schindler and Henderson (1985)4 pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"Inter-corporate transfer pricing under the scope of code section 482 is one of the most complex areas of international taxation. Ã¢â¬ The non-traditional methods further added to complexity. The OECDÃ¢â¬â¢s Transfer Pricing Guidelines (1995)5, based on guidelines first issued in 1979, 1. Lall S. 1973), Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing by Multinational Manufacturing FirmsÃ¢â¬ , Oxford Bulletin of Economics Statistics, Vol. 35(3), pp. 173-95. 2 Bhagwati J. N. (1974), Ã¢â¬Å"On the Under Invoicing of Imports, Fiscal Polices of the Faking of Foreign Trade Dec larations of the Balance of PaymentsÃ¢â¬ , in Bhagwati (ed. ), Illegal Transactions in International Trade, North Holland Publishing Co. 3 Pagan, Jill C. and J. Scott Wilkie, (1993) Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing Strategy in a Global EconomyÃ¢â¬ , Amsterdam: IBFD Publications. 4 Schindler, Geunter and David Henderson (1985),Ã¢â¬Å" Intercorporate Transfer Pricing: 1985 Survey of Section 482 Audits,Ã¢â¬ Tax Notes, Vol. 29, pp. 1171-77. 5 OECD (1995, as updated). Transfer Pricing Guidelines (Paris: OECD). 206 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) largely influence international practice with regard to transfer pricing. The Indian transfer pricing regulations, introduced in 2001, are to an extent modeled on the OECD guidelines. Li (2003)6 describes the methods of transfer pricing by way of an international comparison involving six countries namely, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Canada, United States and Singapore. Ring (2000)7 explains the methodology of undertaking Advance Pricing mechanisms whereby both the tax payers as well as tax administrators agree in advance on the methodology to be used to determine transfer prices in order to avoid unnecessary litigation. Lall (1979)8 highlights the need of a laid back attitude towards transfer pricing in developing countries so as to remain an attractive investment destination in the form of foreign direct investment. R. Murray 9 studied the mechanism by which international tax avoidance is achieved. These mechanisms include general manipulations as well as specific manipulations to items in the profit and loss account and balance sheet. Baistrocchi (2004)10 explains the administrative inexperience of developing countries in implementing transfer pricing rules. Mo (2003)11 gives instances of manipulation of transfer prices and steps taken to combat it in China, India, Brazil and Mexico. UN Survey (1999)12 reveals that in developing countries about 61 per cent respondents felt that the domestic multinational enterprises were engaged in income shifting and 84 per cent believed that foreign enterprises were doing so. In addition, 70 per cent and 87 per cent, respectively, of these countries thought the problem to be significant. Newlon (2000)13 notes the tendency of MNCs to over report income in jurisdictions that impose heavy penalties. Mitchell (2004)14 treats worldwide taxation as a form of tax harmonization. According to his view, tax harmonization is categorically undesirable because Ã¢â¬Å"taxpayers are unable to benefit from better tax policy in other nations and governments are insulated from market disciplineÃ¢â¬ . 4. PQR India: Case Study Design and Analysis Global Tax Consultants Pvt. Ltd. ave been engaged by PQR India to review the transfer pricing arrangements for international transactions with its associated enterprises during the year ended March 31, 2009 on the terms set out in the engagement letter. The objective of this paper is to establish whether the international transactions between PQR India and its associated enterprises adhere to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length principle, embodied in the Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations of the Indian Income-Tax Act, 1961(see Appendix I) and in addition look to the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for further guidance in applying the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard. 6 Li, Jinyan (2003), Ã¢â¬Å" International Taxation in the Age of Electronic CommerceÃ¢â¬ : A Comparative Study (Toronto: Canadian tax Foundation). 7 Ring, Diane M. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"On the Frontier of Procedural Innovation: Advance Pricing Agreements and the Struggle to Allocate Income for Cross Border Taxation,Ã¢â¬ Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 21 (winter) pp. 143-234. 8 Lall, Sanjaya. (1979). Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing and Developing Countries: Some Problems of Investigation,Ã¢â¬ World Development, Vol. 7 Issue 1 (January), pp. 59-71. 9 Murray R. Editor (1981), Ã¢â¬Å"Multinationals Beyond the Market: Intra-firm Trade and the Control of Transfer PricingÃ¢â¬ , London: Harvester Press Brighton, pp. 119-32. 10 Baistrocchi, Eduardo. (2004). The ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Standard in the 21st Century: A Proposal for both Developed and Developing Countries. Ã¢â¬ Tax Notes International, Vol. 36 No. 3 (October 18), pp. 241-255. 11 Mo, Phyllis Lai Lan. (2003); Ã¢â¬Å"Tax Avoid ance and Anti-avoidance Measures in Major Developing EconomiesÃ¢â¬ (Westport, Conn. : Praeger), pp. 207. 12 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1999), Transfer Pricing. (New York). 13 Newlon, T. Scott. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing and Income Shifting in Integrating Economies,Ã¢â¬ in Sijbren Cnossen, editor, Taxing Capital Income in the European Union: Issues and Options for Reform (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 214-42. 14 Mitchell, Daniel J. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of Tax Competition: Harmonization vs. Liberalization,Ã¢â¬ in 2004 Index of Economic Freedom, Marc Miles, et al. , editors, (Washington: Heritage Foundation), Chapter 2. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) 4. 1. Company Profile 207 PQR Group, USA deals in design, manufacture and marketing of the state of the art photocopier machines. In addition, it also offers document management solutions, one-to-one marketing expertise and efficiency management services for various organizations in the United States and internationally. PQR India is a wholly-owned subsidiary of PQR Group, USA. PQR India commences business of import and resale of photocopier machines imported from PQR Group during the financial year 200809. The development of the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price in this analysis recognizes that PQR India is a distributor of photocopier machines in India and is exposed to ordinary risk profile associated with such class of businesses. PQR India, leverages on all the valuable intellectual property rights (knowhow, copyrights etc. ) and other commercial or marketing related intangibles (brand names, trademarks etc. ) owned by PQR Group. Based on the functional analysis, PQR India has relatively less complicated operations and as such bears relatively lesser share of risks and is accordingly selected as the tested party for the purpose of carrying out the economic analysis as part of determination of transfer price on the basis of arms length principle. 4. 2. Industry Overview As per the Indian Regulations (see Appendix 1), every person who has entered into an international transaction shall keep and maintain interalia, the information and documents giving a broad description of the industry in which the assessee operates. The Indian Regulations also prescribe that the comparability of an international transaction with an uncontrolled transaction shall be judged with reference to the conditions prevailing in the markets in which the respective parties to the transactions operate. Hence, for the purposes of the transfer pricing analysis a comprehensive overview of the industry is essential. Industry overview essentially consists of industry background, evolution of industry, characteristics of marketing, emerging industry trends, key drivers, key inhibitors and future outlook for the industry. 4. 3. Functional Analysis As per the Indian Regulations, every person who has entered into an international transaction shall keep and maintain inter alia, a description of the functions performed, risks assumed and assets employed or to be employed by the assessee and by the associated enterprises involved in the international transaction. A functional analysis enables mapping of the economically relevant facts and characteristics of transactions between associated enterprises with regard to their functions, assets and risks. Hence a functional analysis facilitates characterization of the associated enterprises and assists in establishing a degree of comparability with similar transactions in uncontrolled conditions. 4. 3. 1. Functions performed by PQR Group PQR Group, USA deals in design, manufacture and marketing of the state of the art photocopier machines. In addition, it also offers document management solutions, one-to-one marketing expertise and efficiency management services for various organizations in the United States and internationally. In addition, it has a massive research and development center. 4. 3. 2. Functions performed by PQR India PQR India is engaged in the business of import and resale of photocopier machines imported from PQR Group. To understand the functions performed by PQR India, it is important to have an overview of the transactions taking place, which are depicted below: Transactions classified as Category A: Import of finished goods by PQR India and thereafter wholesale distribution by PQR India 208 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) Transactions classified as Category B: Cos recharges are PQR Group from PQR India Functions performed by PQR India under Category A: PQR India, as a wholesale distributor performs a variety of functions including sales, marketing, after sales support, etc. Category B Ã¢â¬â Cost recharges: Under Category B transactions, cost-to-cost recharges on account of certain expenses incurred by PQR Group on behalf of PQR India are included. Assets employed: Any business requires assets (tangible or intangible) without which it cannot carry out its activities. Intangibles play a significant role in the functioning of a business and are accordingly more important. An understanding of the assets employed and owned by PQR India provides an insight into the resources deployed by PQR India and their contribution to the business processes/economic activities of PQR India. Tangibles owned by PQR India: It includes electrical installations, furniture and fixture, office equipments and computer hardware. Intangibles: PQR India being a relatively new company does not own any significant intangibles and does not undertake any significant research and development on its own account that leads to the development of non-routine intangibles. PQR India uses the trademarks, process, know-how, technical data, software, operating/quality standards etc. developed/owned by PQR Group. All companies of the group leverage from these intangibles for continued growth in revenues and profits. . 4. Overview of Inter-Company Transactions PQR India engages in the following inter-company transactions with its associated enterprises: Import of finished goods, import of spar e parts and consumables and cost recharges. The above transactions have been grouped together in two classes namely Category A and Category B which have been separately analyzed from a transfer pricing perspective. 4. 5. Selection of Tested Party The tested party is the participant in the controlled transaction whose profit attributable to the controlled transaction can be verified using the most reliable data and requiring the fewest and most reliable adjustments. In ost cases, the tested party is the least complex of the controlled taxpayers, that is, the taxpayer with the least amount of risk associated with its operations and without valuable intangibles or unique assets that may distinguish it from potential uncontrolled comparable companies. Based on the above, PQR India is clearly the tested party for purposes of this analysis. It does not own an interest in any of the valuable know-how, patents, brand names and trademarks owned by the PQR Group. PQR Group, on the other hand, may own valuable intellectual property rights including commercial and marketing intangibles. Therefore, the comparability adjustments that would be required if independent organizations were to be selected as tested parties, would be both substantial and unreliable. 4. 6. The Most Appropriate Method The Ã¢â¬Ëmost appropriate methodÃ¢â¬â¢ is that method which, under the facts and circumstances of the transaction under review, provides the most reliable measure of an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length result. In determining the reliability of a method, the two most important factors that need to be taken into consideration are: (i) the degree of comparability between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions and (ii) the coverage and reliability of the available data. Because the selection of the Ã¢â¬Å"most appropriate methodÃ¢â¬ involves a test of relative merit, a method that may not be perfect is not rejected unless some other method can be shown to be more reliable or clearly indicating to provide a better estimate of an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length result. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) 209 Selection of the Most Appropriate Method Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method (CUP): In practice, there are two types of comparable uncontrolled transactions. The first, known as an Ã¢â¬Å"internal comparable,Ã¢â¬ is a transaction between one of the parties to the controlled transaction and an unrelated third party. The second, known as an Ã¢â¬Å"external comparable,Ã¢â¬ is a transaction between two unrelated third parties. There are no internal CUPs available for all products imported by PQR India to benchmark its transactions under Category A. PQR India is engaged in import of finished goods and spares consumables for resale in India under Category A (all related to photocopier machines). However, PQR India does not purchase same/similar products from entities other than associated enterprises. Further, during the year, until the commencement of commercial operations by PQR India, overseas gr oup entities sold some similar products to a third party in India. The third party was a Tier-II distributor of PQR Group whereas PQR India acts as a Tier-I distributor. In this way due to unavailability of adequate data to make suitable adjustments to account for the aforesaid differences, it was considered inappropriate to use the third party as an internal comparable in the present case. Therefore, CUP method was not considered for the purpose of ascertaining an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price for the international transactions of PQR India under Category A. As for external comparables, it may be highlighted that the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price as far as uncontrolled enterprises are concerned, is substantially dependent upon factors such as volume, contractual terms, location differences, etc. It may not be possible to estimate with reasonable reliability and accuracy, the combined effect of such factors on per unit prices in case of external comparables. Further, abstract factors such as use of intangibles make the use of CUP method difficult for benchmarking purposes. In view of the above, there are no external comparables available, which may be considered sufficiently appropriate to warrant the use of the CUP method for Category A transactions of PQR India. However, in case of transactions in the nature of costs recharges by PQR Group to PQR India, included under Category B, the third party cost reimbursed is a CUP for the reimbursement. Keeping in view the nature of transaction and the degree of comparability, CUP was considered as the most appropriate method for this class of transactions. Consequently other methods were not considered. Cost Plus Method (CPM) PQR India is a distributor. It imports the finished products, spares and consumables from the Group companies (all related to photocopier machines) and resells them in the domestic market. In this way, in this case PQR India carries out the function of a pure reseller. Since RPM is most appropriate in cases involving the purchase and resale of tangible goods, this method was considered as the most appropriate method for deriving the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price of PQR India under Category A. The application of CPM is ordinarily appropriate in two situations, the provision of services to a related party and the manufacture of tangible goods that are sold to a related party. PQR India on the other hand, operates as a distributor under Category A. Accordingly, CPM was not considered as the most appropriate method for deriving the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price for Category A transactions of PQR India. Profit Split Method (PSM): PSM is typically applied where each party to the transaction under evaluation has significant intangible assets and/or the operations of the parties to the transaction are highly integrated and cannot be evaluated on a separate basis. Also, in general, the PSM relies primarily on the internal data and assumptions pertaining to each party to the controlled transaction instead of relying on comparable uncontrolled transactions as market benchmarks, thus making the use of the PSM ordinarily less reliable than the other methods. PQR India does not own any non-routine intangibles and further the operations of PQR India can be independently evaluated. Therefore, PSM was not considered as the most appropriate method for deriving the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price of PQR IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s international transactions under Category A. Transactional Net Margin Method (TNMM) Net profits may however, be influenced by some factors that either do not have an effect or have less substantial or direct effect on gross margins. Such factors in the case of PQR India include several 210 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) extraneous factors which have been in the later write up. The losses made by the Company at the operating level, in the current financial year, is a result of these factors. The reasons for loss at operating level under Category A were: a) First year of operations and b) Acquisition of mailing business. These additional expenses incurred by the company during the year adversely impacted its profitability at the operating level. However, these expenses were necessary business expenses which had to be incurred in the first year of operations. Given the aforementioned state of affairs, in order to ensure fair comparison of the operating profitability of the company with comparable companies in the industry, one would need to make suitable economic adjustments to appropriately take into account the impact of the aforesaid acquisition of new business by the company. Conclusions of the Most Appropriate Method After reviewing all of the transfer pricing methods, we recommend given the fact and circumstances, the RPM provides the most reliable measure of an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length result for Category A transactions of PQR India. CUP has been selected as the most appropriate method for the international transactions undertaken by PQR India under Category B. 4. 7. Search for Uncontrolled Comparables Databases: The two most popular and widely recognized corporate databases (i. e. , Powers Capitaline) to identify potential uncontrolled comparables for PQR India transactions under Category A. The primarily focus was on Prowess and additional companies were considered Capitaline Plus, i. e. , companies for which data was not available in the Prowess database. Selection of time period: As per the Indian Regulations, the data to be used in analyzing the comparability of an uncontrolled transaction with an international transaction shall be the data relating to the financial year in which the international transaction has been entered into. However, data relating to a period not being more than two years prior to such financial year may also be considered if such data reveals facts which could have an influence on the determination of the transfer price in relation to the transactions being compared. The present analysis involves data analysis of companies from both databases only if they had relevant financial data for at least two out of the three financial years ending during the period April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2009. This has been done in order to eliminate, to the maximum extent possible, any variance in results caused by short-term differences in business cycles, product life cycles or business strategies of individual companies. Search Process Our comparable search strategy identified Indian independent distributors whose functions, assets and risks were broadly comparable to those of PQR India under Category A. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) Search from Prowess Criteria for selection Total number of companies whose information is available on Prowess as on March 31, 2009 Number of companies having positive sales and ratio of sales trading to sales of more than 40% over the relevant time period under consideration were selected so as to capture all possible traders available in Prowess Number of companies herein sales trading as a percentage of sales was higher than 75% were short listed, in order to eliminate companies that were primarily not engaged in trading activity Selection of only those companies with a positive net worth Qualitative Analysis, to eliminate companies operating in industries other than electronics, electrical machinery and miscellaneous distributors and to eliminate controlled/controlling companies 211 No. of Companies achieving the criterion 12,994 1,050 565 496 5 Search from Capitaline Plus Criteria for selection Total number of companies whose information is available on Capitaline Plus as on March 31, 2009 Identified additional companies with positive sales over the time period under consideration were selected i. e. companies for which information was primarily not available in Prowess database Selected companies classified in the Ã¢â¬ËElectronicsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËMiscellaneous Manufactured ArticlesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËElectrical machinery other than electronicsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËNon-electrical machineryÃ¢â¬â¢ industries Selection of only those companies with a positive net worth Qualitative An alysis, to eliminate companies not engaged in trading activities in the same/ similar industry segment and to eliminate controlled/controlling companies. No. of companies achieving the criterion 8,160 1,650 228 86 2 Finally, at the end of the above described search process from both the databases, we were left with 7 comparable companies for benchmarking Category A transactions of PQR India. 4. 8. Choice of a Profit Level Indicator (PLI) The application of RPM requires the selection of an appropriate Profit Level Indicator (PLI). The PLI measures the relationship between (i) profits and (ii) either costs incurred, revenues earned, or assets employed. A variety of PLIs can be used. Factors relevant to the selection of the appropriate profit level indicator include the reliability of the available data and the extent to which the profit level indictor takes into account costs that would be considered by independent parties. Gross Profit Margin is the ratio of Gross Profit to Sales (GP/Sales) and was selected to reliably measure the income of PQR India that it would have earned had it dealt with uncontrolled parties at armÃ¢â¬â¢s length under Category A. 4. 9. Determination of ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Results The Indian Regulations require that the ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Price (ALP) in relation to an international transaction shall be determined by any of the prescribed methods (CUP, RPM, CPM, TNMM and PSM), being the most appropriate method. All methods other than CUP are methods that enable determination of ALP on the basis of respective margins earned by comparable uncontrolled companies. The relevant rules envisage determination of ALP by applying margins of each comparable company to the appropriate base of the enterprise. The regulations further provide that, where more than one price is determined by the most 212 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) ppropriate method, the ALP shall be taken to be the arithmetical mean of such prices. An alternative practical approach to arrive at such ALP could be to compute the arithmetic mean of margins of comparable companies and apply the same to the appropria te base of PQR India to determine the ALP. ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Results S. No. 1 2 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Name of the Company X1 India Ltd. X2 India Ltd. X3 India Ltd. X4 India Ltd. X5 India Ltd. X6 India Ltd. X7 India Ltd. Mean Median Upper Quartile Lower Quartile Data Source Prowess Prowess Prowess Prowess Prowess Capitaline Plus Capitaline Plus GP/Sales (%) 30. 00 40. 00 35. 00 28. 00 22. 00 45. 0 36. 00 33. 71 35 38. 00 29. 00 The above analysis shows that the mean GP/Sales of comparable companies under Category A is 33. 71%. Hence, prices of international transactions of PQR India under Category A, that achieve GP/Sales of 33. 71% or more would conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. The financial results of PQR India indicate that the company has GP/Sales of 44. 20% during the year ended March 31, 2009. For Category A transactions, GP/Sales of PQR India are higher than the mean GP/Sales of comparable companies. Further, under Ca tegory B, costs recharged by PQR Group to PQR India are included. All these costs represent actual amounts paid by PQR Group to independent third parties and are recovered from PQR India, on a cost-to-cost basis. Applying the CUP method, these recharges conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. The above analysis provides evidence that both the pricing basis itself of international transactions of PQR India during the financial year 2008-09 and the outcome of the pricing i. e. , the profitability were in accordance with the Ã¢â¬ËArmÃ¢â¬â¢s LengthÃ¢â¬â¢ standard prescribed under the Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations. 5. Summary and Recommendations The regulations on transfer pricing in India were indeed inevitable and long overdue. The case study of PQR India clearly demonstrates the computation procedure required to be followed for scientifically determining the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length price as per the provisions of transfer pricing in India. The analysis shows that the mean GP/Sales of comparable companies is 33. 71% while that of the PQR India (i. e. , the tested party) is 44. 20% during the year ended March 31, 2009 indicating that the prices of international transaction of PQR India conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. Further, under Category B, costs recharged by PQR Group to PQR India are included. All these costs represent actual amounts paid by PQR Group to independent third parties and are recovered from PQR India, on a cost-to-cost basis. Applying the comparable uncontrolled price method, these recharges conform to the armÃ¢â¬â¢s length standard prescribed under the Indian regulations. However, there are some practical problems arising out of the applications of transfer pricing regulations, which need to be addressed by the tax administrators as early as possible. These issues include absence of advance pricing agreements (APA) mechanism in India, data limitations, extremely wide definition of associated enterprises in India, stringent penalties, difficulties encountered while conducting economic analysis/benchmarking and many more. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) 213 References  Baistrocchi, Eduardo. (2004). The ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Standard in the 21st Century: A Proposal for both Developed and Developing Countries. Ã¢â¬ Tax Notes International, Vol. 36 No. 3 (October 18), pp. 241-255. Bhagwati J. N. (1974), Ã¢â¬Å"On the Under Invoicing of Imports, Fiscal Pol ices of the Faking of Foreign Trade Declarations of the Balance of PaymentsÃ¢â¬ , in Bhagwati (ed. ), Illegal Transactions in International Trade, North Holland Publishing Co. Lall S. (1973), Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing by Multinational Manufacturing FirmsÃ¢â¬ , Oxford Bulletin of Economics Statistics, Vol. 35(3) pp. 173-95. Lall, Sanjaya. (1979). Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing and Developing Countries: Some Problems of Investigation,Ã¢â¬ World Development, Vol. Issue 1 (January), pp. 59-71. Li, Jinyan (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"International Taxation in the Age of Electronic CommerceÃ¢â¬ : A Comparative Study, Toronto: Canadian tax Foundation. Mo, Phyllis Lai Lan. (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"Tax Avoidance and Anti-avoidance Measures in Major Developing EconomiesÃ¢â¬ , Westport, Conn. : Praeger, pp. 207. Mitchell, Daniel J. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of Tax Competition: Harmonization vs. Liberalization,Ã¢â¬ in 2004 Index of Economic Freedom, Marc Miles, et al. , editors, Washington: Heritage Foundatio n, Chapter 2. Murray R. Editor (1981), Ã¢â¬Å"Multinationals Beyond the Market: Intra-firm Trade and the Control of Transfer PricingÃ¢â¬ , London: Harvester Press Brighton, pp. 119-32. Newlon, T. Scott. (2000), Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing and Income Shifting in Integrating Economies,Ã¢â¬ in Sijbren Cnossen, editor, Taxing Capital Income in the European Union: Issues and Options for Reform (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 214-42. OECD (1995, as updated). Transfer Pricing Guidelines (Paris: OECD). Pagan, Jill C. and J. Scott Wilkie (1993), Ã¢â¬Å"Transfer Pricing Strategy in a Global EconomyÃ¢â¬ , Amsterdam: IBFD Publications. Ring, Diane M. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"On the Frontier of Procedural Innovation: Advance Pricing Agreements and the struggle to allocate Income for Cross Border TaxationÃ¢â¬ , Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 21 (winter), pp. 143-234. Schindler, Geunter and David Henderson (1985), Ã¢â¬Å"Inter corporate Transfer Pricing: 1985 Survey of Section 482 Audits,Ã¢â¬ Tax Notes, Vol. 29, pp. 1171-77. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1999). Transfer Pricing (New York).              214 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Ã¢â¬â Issue 40 (2010) Appendix I Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations Legal Position: The Finance Act 2001 introduced with effect from assessment year 2002-2003, detailed Transfer Pricing regulations vide section 92 to 92F of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has come out with Transfer Pricing Rules Ã¢â¬â Rule 10A to Rule 10E. Applicability: Transfer pricing provisions are applicable based on fulfillment of two conditions: Firstly, there must be an international transaction. Secondly, such an international transaction must be between two or more associated enterprises, either or both of whom are non-residents. Pricing Method permitted: ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s Length Price is to be determined by adopting any one of the following methods, being the most appropriate method: Comparable Uncontrolled Price method, Resale Price Method, Cost Plus Method, Profit Split Method, Transaction Net Margin Method, or any other method prescribed by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT). Documentation/Return: 13 different types of documents are required to be maintained. These include Ã¢â¬â 1) Enterprise-wise documents:-Description of the enterprise, relationship with other associated enterprises, nature of business carried out. 2) Transaction-specific documents:-Information regarding each transaction, description of the functions performed, assets employed and risks assumed by each party to the transaction, Economic Market Analysis etc. 3) Computation related documents:-Describe in details the method considered, actual working assumptions, policies etc. , adjustment made to transfer price, any other relevant information, data, documents relied for determination of armÃ¢â¬â¢s Length price etc. A report from a Chartered Accountant in the prescribed form giving details of transactions is required to be submitted within a specific time limit. Penalty: Penalty for concealment of income or furnishing inaccurate particulars thereof100% to 300% of the tax sought to be evaded. Penalty for failure to keep and maintain information and documents in respect of International transaction2% of the value of each international transaction Penalty for failure to furnish report under section 92E- Rs. 1,00,000. OECD Guideline: No reference to OECD guidelines under Indian Transfer Pricing regulations No provisions regarding Advance Pricing Agreements Advance Pricing Agreement: under Indian law as of now Government web-link: www. incometaxindia. gov. in Source: OECD Transfer Pricing Country Profilehttp://www. oecd. org/dataoecd/9/4/42236399. pdf How to cite Analyzing Indian Transfer Pricing Regulations: a Case Study, Free Case study samples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
I dont understand the concept of visiting someone who is dead; perhaps that is why I have never been comfortable in cemeteries. A loved one never dies inside the living; there are always memories, so why then do we feel obligated to visit a plot in the ground? I do not want to be here in the first place and now I am completely lost, driving around in circles, searching for something that I dont want to find. I am afraid to face you; I wonder if you will be angry that it has taken me two years to confront my fears and come here. Perhaps now that I am here, I will be able to bury the past and finally find internal peace. I turn the wheel to the left and at last begin to recognize the landscape. Driving up the long, windy road I pull over at the top of your hill and turn the key, silencing the intrusive motor. We will write a custom essay sample on Cemetery or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I open the door and my foot crunches on the cold, gray gravel. Closing my eyes and taking a long, deep breath, I pull myself from the safety of my car. Forcing my eyes to open, I am shocked at what I see. I am surrounded by beauty in a place that I imagined to be ugly from death and grief, full of evil ghosts and dark storm clouds. Around me everything is filled with light. Life declares itself in the singing of the birds, in the breeze that plays with my hair, and in the leaves on the trees that are turning gold and orange, as bright as the sunset. The trees are the most majestic I have ever seen, standing high and proud. Like stately, mute guards, they lend an air of respect to this place, filling me with a sense of power. Now, I realize why our mother wanted you here; it is the most beautiful place on earth. My heartbeat is returning to normal and my tense body has begun to relax amidst the serenity of my surroundings. Tip-toeing over to visit you, I am careful to walk around your neighbors, not wanting to show them disrespect by stepping over them. My presence in this haven seems like an intruder; I am afraid to make a sound for I do not want to disturb the delicate balance. I whisper when I speak, concerned that I will wake sleeping souls. I look at the tree that stands at your head and catch myself before the laughter escapes my tight lips. It is sickly, tied to two poles for support. Its trunk is thin, its branches weak, and its leaves few. Even now it is impossible for you to escape your illness. The irony hits me hard. It does not seem fair that a person as admirable as you should have had to suffer and live the life that you were forced to live. I am not even sure if it can be called a life, not to be able to talk, or dress yourself, or walk. An entire day sitting in a wheelchair staring at the walls or lying in a crib staring at the ceiling, what kind of life is that? I am wrong; you were forced to exist, not live. I am amazed at how you were able to influence so many people, to make them love you. I recall the countless hours that nurses spent with you, as if you were their own child. Your smile lit up everyones day and gave them the hope and strength they desperately needed. At this moment I realize that you have made a stronger impression on me than I have let myself believe. You have made me strong and compassionate and from you I have learned that there is always hope, no matter how bad life may seem. You have been more than a sister to me, you have been a teacher and a mentor. From you I have learned lifes important lesson. You have shown the world how precious, and yet how fragile, life is. Life should not be taken for granted. I have become so caught up in mine that I havent taken the time to appreciate it; to realize that I have been given a beautiful gift; and, that I need to share this gift with the world. You have taught me more than I could have ever learned in any classroom. I am thanking you now, since I never did when I had the chance. Even now that your body is gone, your lesson has been planted in me and all who knew you. I can teach my children and they will teach theirs and you will never die; you will have completed your purpose. As I turn to leave, I look back at the tree and smile. I know that it is thin and sickly now; but, over time, it will grow into a beautiful and powerful tree, just as your memory will grow stronger inside of me and give me strength.
Tuesday, March 31, 2020
Arna Bontemps, Documenting the Harlem Renaissance In the introduction to the poetry anthology Caroling Dusk, Countee Cullen described the poet Arna Bontemps as being, ...at all times cool, calm, and intensely religious yet never takes advantage of the numerous opportunities offered them for rhymed polemics. Bontemps might have published poetry, childrens literature, and plays during the Harlem Renaissance but he never gained the fame of Claude McKay or Cullen. YetÃ BontempsÃ work as an educator and librarian allowed the works of the Harlem Renaissance to be revered for generations to come. Early Life and Education Bontemps was born in 1902 in Alexandria, La., to Charlie and Marie Pembrooke Bontemps. When Bontemps was three, his family moved to Los Angeles as part of the Great Migration. Bontemps attended public school in Los Angeles before heading to Pacific Union College. As a student at Pacific Union College, Bontemps majored in English, minored in history and joined the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. The Harlem Renaissance Following Bontemps college graduation, he headed to New York City and accepted a teaching position at a school in Harlem. When Bontemps arrived, the Harlem Renaissance was already in full swing. Bontemps poem The Day Breakers was published in the anthology, The New Negro in 1925. The following year, Bontemps poem, Golgatha is a Mountain won first prize in the Alexander Pushkin contest sponsored by Opportunity. Bontemps wrote the novel, God Sends Sunday in 1931 about an African-American jockey. That same year, Bontemps accepted a teaching position at Oakwood Junior College. The following year, Bontemps was awarded a literary prize for the short story, A Summer Tragedy. He also began publishing childrens books. The first, Popo and Fifina: Children of Haiti, was written with Langston Hughes. In 1934, Bontemps published You Cant Pet a Possum and was fired from Oakwood College for his personal political beliefs and library, which were not aligned with the schools religious beliefs. Yet, Bontemps continued to write and in 1936s Black Thunder: Gabriels Revolt: Virginia 1800, was published. Life After the Harlem Renaissance In 1943, Bontemps returned to school, earning a masters degree in library science from the University of Chicago. Following his graduation, Bontemps worked as the head librarian at Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. For more than twenty years, Bontemps worked at Fisk University, spearheading the development of various collections on African-American culture. Through these archives, he was able to coordinate the anthology Great Slave Narratives. In addition to working as a librarian, Bontemps continued to write. In 1946, he wrote the play, St. Louis Woman with Cullen. Ã One of his books, The Story of the Negro was awarded the Jane Addams Childrens Book Award and also received the Newberry Honor Book. Bontemps retired from Fisk University in 1966 and worked for the University of Illinois before serving as curator of the James Weldon Johnson Collection. Death Bontemps died on June 4, 1973, from a heart attack. Selected Works by Arna Bontemps Popo and Fifina, Children of Haiti, by Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes, 1932You Cant Pet a Possum, 1934Black Thunder: Gabriels Revolt: Virginia 1800, 1936Sad-Faced Boy, 1937Drums at Dusk: A Novel, 1939Golden Slippers: An Anthology of Negro Poetry for Young Readers, 1941The Fast Sooner Hound, 1942They Seek a City, 1945We Have Tomorrow, 1945Slappy Hooper, the Wonderful Sign Painter, 1946The Poetry of the Negro, 1746-1949: an anthology, edited by Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps, 1949George Washington Carver, 1950Chariot in the Sky: a Story of the Jubilee Singers, 1951Famous Negro Athletes, 1964The Harlem Renaissance Remembered: Essays, Edited, With a Memoir, 1972Young Booker: Booker T. Washingtons Early Days, 1972The Old South: A Summer Tragedy and Other Stories of the Thirties, 1973
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Discipleship Essay Essay Example Discipleship Essay Paper Discipleship Essay Paper Essay Topic: Religion A disciple is a follower or adherent supporter of a leader or teacher. It is the name usually given to the followers of Jesus Christ. The most eminent disciples are the Twelve Disciples who were specifically chosen by Jesus to preach the Gospel and called Apostles. Simon and his brother Andrew were the first men called by Jesus. At the time they were catching fish with a net in Lake Galilee. Jesus walked along the shore and said to them, Come with me, and I will teach you to catch people (Mk 1: 16 18). At once they left their nets and followed him. James and John, the sons of Zebedee were called secondly after Jesus saw them in a boat getting their nets ready. He called them and they too left behind their belongings and went with him. Time went by and Jesus called another man named Levi. Levi was the son of Alphaeus and a tax collector. He was sitting in his office when Jesus approached him. Follow me, (Mk 2: 13 14) Jesus said and Levi immediately followed. Marks Gospel does not record when or where the other disciples were called. We know that Jesus chose the Twelve Apostles upon a hill. He called to himself the men he wanted and they came to him. He said to them: I have chosen you to be with me. I will also send you out to preach, and you will have authority to drive out demons. (Mk 3: 14 15) He chose twelve men who became ardent supporters of his teachings. Jesus chose people who were part of the main industry of the area (the fishermen); patriots (the zealot) or who were civil servants (the tax collector). Mark, in his Gospel, showed that being a disciple of Jesus would put great pressure on their faith. Jesus had never promised that life, as a disciple would be easy. After he had spoken about his suffering and death, he said: If anyone wants to follow me, he must forget self, carry his cross, and follow me. (Mk 8: 34) Any follower of Jesus would probably suffer just like Jesus. For whoever wants to save his own life will lose it; but whoever loses his life for me and for the gospel will save it. (Mk 8: 35) When Peter saw the suffering of Jesus, his faith in Jesus failed him, and he disproved of any association with him. Judas Iscariot was another apostle of Jesus Christ. Rather than denying Jesus, he betrayed him and handed him over to the authorities. Peter, after offending realised what he had done wrong. From then on he did not shun Jesus and was persecuted in later life. The story of Peters denial has all the evidence of personal confession of failure to live up to chivalrous words of loyalty. Judas however could not admit to being wrong and ended his life. Jesus showed people that they would have to learn to value things differently if they were going to follow him. For example, the attitude he showed towards prostitutes or tax collectors. They learned from Jesus to respect the outcasts of their society and think of them as people who needed help. One event gives an example of the price of following Jesus. He was once asked: Teacher, what must I do to receive eternal life? (Mk 10: 17) He replied: You need only one thing. Go and sell all you have and give the money to the poor, and you will have riches in heaven, then come and follow me. (Mk 10: 21) Once the man heard this, a look of gloom came over his face and he went away sad because he was rich. Jesus used this conversation as a lesson for his disciples. He taught them of the perplexity that possessions could be to a person who may set them up as a rival to God. They do not give their undivided love to God but balance their attention between God and their assets. After the rich man had left, Peter asked Jesus about the reward that a disciple receives: Look we have left everything and followed you. (Mk 10: 28) Jesus replied: He will receive a hundred times more houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children and fields and persecution as well; and in the age to come he will receive eternal life. (Mk 10: 30) Jesus ordered the Twelve Apostles to follow certain instructions. These instructions were called the Mission of the Twelve. The disciples were sent out in pairs and were not to take any food with them. They were not to take any money and had to stay in a place if they were made welcome until they left the district. The disciples were to shake the dust off their feet as they left a place if they did not receive hospitality. This was to show that the disciples had no time for them because they had rejected God. (Mk 6: 7 13) These instructions have a special meaning. They prove that discipleship can involve suffering, rejection and death. To those who do react, there will be a reward. Just as Jesus will rise from the dead after his suffering and death, so those who accept challenge to become disciples will find life. When people decided to follow Jesus, they became members of a new family. Those who followed Gods way were classed as Jesus family: Whoever does what God wants him to do is my brother, my sister, my mother. (Mk 3: 33) To be a disciple, one must acquire many values, for example being able to listen, self sacrifice, being obedient and having faith. There are many qualities needed to achieve discipleship and those are mentioned in Marks gospel. Once Jesus was approached by James and John and asked: Teacher, when you sit on your throne in your glorious Kingdom, we want you to let us sit with you, one at your left and one at your right. (Mk 10: 35 37) Jesus asked James and John: You dont know what you are asking for. Can you drink the cup of suffering that I must drink? Can you be baptised in the way I must be baptised? (Mk 10: 38) At once James and John said that they would be able to and Jesus replied: You will indeed drink the cup I must drink and be baptised in the way I must be baptised. Afterwards when all of the disciples were gathered together, Jesus told them that: If one of you wants to be great, he must be the servant of the rest; and if one of you wants to be first, he must be the slave to all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served; he came to serve and to give his life to redeem many people. (Mk 10: 43 45) This story showed how James and John had the qualities of being disciples, they were willing t o serve God a disciple must have the attitude of a servant. Levi the tax collector also showed the values of a disciple. When Jesus said to him Follow me, (Mk 2: 13 14) he immediately left everything and went with him. On this occasion, Levi showed the signs of obedience. Jesus taught his disciples about being childlike also. They once scolded people who bought their children for Jesus to place his hands upon. Jesus told them: Let the children come to me, and do not stop them, because the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. I assure you that whoever does not receive the Kingdom of God like a child will never enter it. (Mk 9: 13 15) Baptism is the first of the three sacraments of initiation which makes a person a full member of the Christian Church. These sacraments are Baptism, the Eucharist and Confirmation. There is a special service or rite for the Christian initiation of adults into the Church. Confirmation seals a Christian with the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is the same Holy Spirit that came down upon the apostles at Pentecost. The Holy Spirit is given to a Christian at Baptism and in the Sacrament of Confirmation the ceremony of initiation into the Christian family is completed. In the ceremony of Confirmation, the faith that was avowed in baptism is renewed. Religious men and women are devoted to God by three vows, poverty, chastity and obedience. A vocation is a divine call to or a sense of ones fitness for a certain career or occupation. Christians who belong to the Roman Catholic Church can choose from three ways in which they can fulfil their vocation which they have received in Baptism and Confirmation. They can carry out their responsibilities as a single or a married lay person. The term lay means non-clerical; not ordained into the clergy. The laity are called to demonstrate the principles, which Christ taught, by missionary work, reading in Church or by teaching others. They also bring holiness to others by the example of their lives. Lay people should also implement Christs teachings to the problems of the modern world, e.g. violence, drugs, crime, healing the sick, feeding the hungry or housing the homeless. Honesty, justice, sincerity, kindness and courage are the values of a Christian. Married people prove their holiness in the success of their marriage, or their family relationships. The example of a good life activates other people to want to share in that kind of life, and brings them to God. Those who are devoted to religion can experience religious life in contemplative orders or apostolic orders. Those that follow contemplative orders lead a concealed life of work and prayer. Rather than going out to help people physically, they pray for the inequalities of the world or partake in the background work for events. Examples of people who live like this are the Carmelites and the Poor Clares (for women) and the Carthusians and Cistercians (for men). People who prefer to help others on a public scale live life according to apostolic orders. These people lead a life of prayer, and community work. They participate in helping the sick, teaching others, helping the poor or helping the elderly. One can take a Christian vocation even further when they are ordained to priesthood. Nevertheless, before a man can be commissioned to the priesthood, he becomes a deacon. Before ordination, the deacon may help in a parish by proclaiming the Gospel at mass, Baptising, assisting at marriages and conducting funeral services. A deacon must also promise celibacy and he must care for the people of God. When people live their lives to coincide with the Gospel, they receive rewards. Although Jesus has promised eternal life to those who live simple lives so that others can simply live, a person can also receive rewards here on earth. Jesus had never said that discipleship would be easy yet many people can obtain satisfaction from their work. For example, a dedicated mother or father is gratified as they watch their children grow and people who work with those with addictions are content when they see that someone who they have helped is able to survive without drugs or alcohol. As Jesus has promised that being a disciple is not unconstrained, we should expect obstacles to make our journey harder. There have been many people throughout history who have endured agony in place of others and many who have died for the sake of their beliefs. One man who did this was Oscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdames. Oscar Romero was born in San Salvadore in 1917. He was ordained into the Roman Catholic Church in 1942, was elected as bishop in 1970 and seven years later, he was made archbishop of San Salvadore. Despite what people thought of him, Romero had publicised the importance he attached to social justice. The right wing believed that the Catholic Church in San Salvadore, and in particular the Jesuits, were involved in Marxist subversion on behalf of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front guerrilla army. His death affected the Roman Catholic world with Romero standing out as an apostle of human rights. Oscar Romero showed true discipleship, although he umpired violence, he continued to preach within hasty conditions. In the end he made the greatest sacrifice of all, he lost his life. Romero put himself last for the sake of peasants who had no human rights whatsoever, he used his status to help those with none. Even in todays world, there are still inequalities. These inequalities occur more often in developing countries and are usually caused by the arms race, the inability to recover from natural disasters, increasing debt, the population explosion, ignorance and illiteracy. Education is needed desperately in developing countries. Children may only know their local dialect and may not be able to interact with other villages or tribes. Ignorance and illiteracy have serious side effects on health, techniques of farming, industry and trade. The problems of developing countries are so dramatic that aid is only effective if performed on a global scale. However it is from voluntary services and organisations that most aid comes from. One example of an organisation that does this is CAFOD (The Catholic Fund Overseas Development). CAFOD was set up by the bishops of England and Wales in 1962 to asseverate the concerns of the Catholic community for the needs and problems of developing countries. CAFOD supply information about the needs of developing countries. Information packs are provided and contain the history, social conditions, and development of a particular country. Films, slide sets, pamphlets, books and posters are produced. The organisation asks people to remember the teaching of Jesus regarding prayer, fasting, alms giving (charity). The spirit of Jesus words explains the attitude of giving which is encouraged by CAFOD. Prayer, fasting and charity are the three traditional ways in the Church of helping those in need, and go back to the earliest days in the Acts of the Apostles. The CAFOD groups are encouraged to give up something each week as a regular act of self denial, in order to help the poor. The money raised by CAFOD goes towards community development, food production, water supplies and irrigation, preventative medicine, vocational training, adult education. Particular projects may include a village well; a rural dispensary; a mother and child nutrition scheme; or a latrine programme in a slum. CAFOD functions as it believes in the basic equality of all people in the sight of God. Human dignity demands a fair standard of living. Everyone has the same needs of food, clothing, and shelter. CAFOD is a way of being with Christ who is hungry, thirsty and in need. Having reported on the values of discipleship, I shall challenge the hypothesis that states: It is not possible to be a true disciple of Jesus in the modern world. I disagree with this statement entirely. I believe that anyone, who is a good administrator of all that God trusts him or her with, is worthy of earning discipleship. Before Jesus died he said: If anyone wants to come with me, he must forget self, carry his cross, and follow me. For whoever wants to save his own life will lose it; but whoever loses his life for me and for the Gospel will save it. (Mk 8: 34 35) There are several examples of people in the modern world who make sacrifices and carry a cross for the sake of the gospel and other people. For instance, Martin Luther King. He was an American clergyman who partly led the American civil rights movement. He was a chief supporter of non- violent resistance to racial oppression. Martin Luther King lived in an era when individuals were not accepted in America. His successful preoccupation with Vietnam and his determination to lead a Poor Peoples March in a racist community triggered his murder on April 3, 1968. No human being is perfect and a disciple does not require precision either. We know this because the twelve apostles turned their back on Jesus at least once. Peter denied Jesus, Judas betrayed him and the other ten ran away when he was arrested. Consequently, if people have made mistakes in the past they can be forgiven and start again. It is human nature for people to make errors and because God is forgiving, it is never too late for a person to acquire the values of discipleship. On the other hand, others may disagree. A common theory is that people cannot practice their religion as there is far too much violence and indignity around the World and people are unable to worship freely. Around the time of Jesus there was much persecution and people were mistreated if they did not share common beliefs. Moreover many people such as Saint Peter continued to practice their faith regardless of the potential risk that it imposed. There are many people who cannot adapt to the Christian faith because Jesus is dead and the number of people who attend mass is declining. They fail to believe because they need visual evidence to reassure them that there really is a God. As few people visit Church nowadays, some fail to recognise how discipleship can survive through a small amount of people. As the basis of the Church relies on secondary evidence written in the Gospel, many are not trustworthy enough to depend on books and because of this, some communities favour other religious practice. Having weighed up the opinion opposite to mine, I strongly disagree with its argument. My reasoning is that we live in a World of diverse culture, where in most places people are accepted for their faith, gender, status and being. As time has passed, women have gained equal rights as men, black people have earned the same respect as white people and homosexuality and individuality is accepted. So why is faith different? There is a minority of people who are still unable to preach openly but the Christian population is increasing and the majority of Christians are able to profess their beliefs without encumbrance. And that is why there are many people today who are willing to help those that are limited in being able to praise God independently. When someone goes to the hospital to be treated for an illness, they see doctors and nurses helping them. One cannot say that these people are poisoned with remorse but only guardianship because they look out and care for the welfare of others. They are examples of discipleship as they assign their time for the comfort of others. There are people who are involved and dedicate their life to aiding those less fortunate than themselves, working with charities like CAFOD to assist those weaker in the fellowship. These are the people who do carry their own cross and make sacrifices for the benefit of others. These are the people who qualify as disciples and prove that good people are still on hand today.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Organizational Turn Over, Empowerment Dimensions, Performance Improvement, and Job Satisfaction - Dissertation Example If the information isnÃ¢â¬â¢t perceived in the correct manner, then it may relate directly to the employee turn Ã¢â¬â over rate, job performance and satisfaction. This research study will examine the several dimensions of employee turn Ã¢â¬â over, what this relates to and how this is also potentially based on the amount of information which is retrieved from a company. Table of Contents 1.0 IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 1.1 BackgroundÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 1.2 Problem StatementÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.7 1.3 PurposeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...8 1.4 Significance of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.10 1.5 Nature of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..12 1.6 HypothesisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦13 1.7 Theoretical frameworkÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.13 1.8 AssumptionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.15 1.9 Scope, Limitations, and DelimitationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.15 1.10 SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦16 2.0 Literature ReviewÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.17 2.1 IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..17 2.2 History of Organizational Turn Ã¢â¬â Over and EmpowermentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦18 2.3 Individual Relationships to Turn Ã¢â¬â OverÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦19 2.4 Cultural Behaviors in OrganizationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...21 2.5 Leadership Roles in Turn Ã¢â¬â Over RatesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..22 2.6 Motivational TheoriesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.24 2.7 The External EnvironmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..26 2.8 Communication, Information and Job PerformanceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...28 2.9 SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..30 3.0 Research MethodsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦31 3.1 Research Method and Design AppropriatenessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...31 3.2 Population, Sampling and data Collection ProceduresÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦32 3.3 Validity Ã¢â¬â Internal and ExternalÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...32 3.4 Data AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...33 3.5 SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..33 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..34 1.0 Introduction Organizational turn Ã¢â¬â over is a difficulty that most businesses face, specifically because it leads to gaps in the work flow, changes the pace which many are working in and alters the way in which businesses are able to develop and grow. Organizational turn Ã¢â¬â over becomes detrimental for the overall production of a company and can create lapses with those who are interested in